Gå til innhold
  • Send

  • Kategori

  • Sorter etter

  • Antall per side

Fant 648 publikasjoner. Viser side 26 av 27:

Publikasjon  
År  
Kategori

Seasonal soil/snow-air exchange of semivolatile organic pollutants at a coastal arctic site (Tromsø, 69°N)

Casal, Paulo; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Pizarro, Mariana; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A.; Dachs, Jordi

Elsevier

2018

hackAIR: Towards raising awareness about air quality in Europe by developing a collective online platform

Kosmidis, Evangelos; Syropoulou, Panagiota; Tekes, Stavros; Schneider, Philipp; Spyromitros-Xioufis, Eleftherios; Riga, Marina; Charitidis, Polychronis; Moumtzidou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Vrochidis, Stefanos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Stavrakas, Ilias; Hloupis, George; Loukidis, Andronikos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia

Although air pollution is one of the most significant environmental factors posing a threat to human health worldwide, air quality data are scarce or not easily accessible in most European countries. The current work aims to develop a centralized air quality data hub that enables citizens to contribute to air quality monitoring. In this work, data from official air quality monitoring stations are combined with air pollution estimates from sky-depicting photos and from low-cost sensing devices that citizens build on their own so that citizens receive improved information about the quality of the air they breathe. Additionally, a data fusion algorithm merges air quality information from various sources to provide information in areas where no air quality measurements exist.

MDPI

2018

An Infrastructural Analysis of a Crowdsourcing Tool for Environmental Research

Fossum, Selamawit Molla; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Røen, Håvard Vika

In this paper, we adopt information infrastructure design principles and concepts from the theory of critical mass to analyze and evaluate the socio-technical conditions that hindered the successful bootstrapping processes of a crowdsourcing tool for environmental research. The crowdsourcing tool was designed to improve the estimation of emissions from burning wood for residential heating in urban areas in Norway by collecting geolocation data on wood consumption and stove types. Our analysis identifies three groups of users, namely scientists, wood consumers (end users), and key stakeholders, that the IT capability of the tool needs to support. At this stage, we determined that the tool was more useful to the scientists than the other two groups, which was attributed to its low uptake. We uncovered various underlying issues through further analysis of means by which the tool becomes useful to key stakeholders. One particular issue concerned the tension between existing data collection practices, which are based on statistical methods, and the nature of crowdsourcing, which is based on the principle of open call with no sampling techniques. From our analysis, we concluded that developing crowdsourcing tools for research requires increasing the tool’s benefits for key stakeholders by addressing these underlying issues. Inferring from the theory of critical mass for collective action, we recommend that developers of crowdsourcing tools include a function that allows users to view the contributions of other users.

2018

Elucidation of contamination sources for poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic)

Skaar, Jøran Solnes; Ræder, Erik Magnus; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Ahrens, Lutz; Kallenborn, Roland

A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e., long-range transport) are assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources have been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFASs pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, fresh water (lake, draining rivers), sea water, melt-water run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs. For background site (Linnévatnet area, sampling during April to June 2015), ∑PFAS levels ranged from 0.4 – 4 ng/L in surface lake water (n = 20). PFAS in melt water from the contributing glaciers showed similar concentrations (~4 ng/L, n = 2). The short chain perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) was predominant in lake water (60-80% of the ∑PFASs), meltwater (20-30 %) and run-off water (40 %). Long range transport is assumed to be the major PFAS source. In Longyearbyen, 5 water samples (i.e. 2 seawater, 3 run-off) were collected near the local firefighting training site (FFTS) in November 2014 and June 2015, respectively. The highest PFAS levels were found in FFTS melt water run-off (118 ng/L). PFOS was the most abundant compound in the FFTS meltwater run-off (53 – 58 % PFASs). At the research station Ny-Ålesund, sea water (n = 6), soil (n = 9) and fresh water (n = 10) were collected in June 2016. Low ∑PFAS concentrations were determined for sea water (5 - 6 ng/L), whereas high ∑PFAS concentrations were found in run-off water (113 – 119 ng/L) and soil (211 – 800 ng/g dry weight (dw)) collected close to the local FFTS. In addition, high ∑PFAS levels (127 ng/L) were also found in fresh water from lake Solvatnet close to former sewage treatment facility. Overall, at both FFTS affected sites (soil, water), PFOS was the most abundant compound (60 – 69% of ∑PFASs). FFTS and landfill locations were identified as major PFASs sources for Svalbard settlements.

2018

Mineral Dust Instantaneous Radiative Forcing in the Arctic

Kylling, Arve; Zwaaftink, Christine Groot; Stohl, Andreas

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2018

Primary aerosol and secondary inorganic aerosol budget over the Mediterranean Basin during 2012 and 2013

Guth, Jonathan; Marécal, Virginie; Josse, Béatrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Hamer, Paul

In the frame of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we analyse the budget of primary aerosols and secondary inorganic aerosols over the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2012 and 2013. To do this, we use two year-long numerical simulations with the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE validated against satellite- and ground-based measurements. The budget is presented on an annual and a monthly basis on a domain covering 29 to 47° N latitude and 10° W to 38° E longitude.

The years 2012 and 2013 show similar seasonal variations. The desert dust is the main contributor to the annual aerosol burden in the Mediterranean region with a peak in spring, and sea salt being the second most important contributor. The secondary inorganic aerosols, taken as a whole, contribute a similar level to sea salt. The results show that all of the considered aerosol types, except for sea salt aerosols, experience net export out of our Mediterranean Basin model domain, and thus this area should be considered as a source region for aerosols globally. Our study showed that 11 % of the desert dust, 22.8 to 39.5 % of the carbonaceous aerosols, 35 % of the sulfate and 9 % of the ammonium emitted or produced into the study domain are exported. The main sources of variability for aerosols between 2012 and 2013 are weather-related variations, acting on emissions processes, and the episodic import of aerosols from North American fires.

In order to assess the importance of the anthropogenic emissions of the marine and the coastal areas which are central for the economy of the Mediterranean Basin, we made a sensitivity test simulation. This simulation is similar to the reference simulation but with the removal of the international shipping emissions and the anthropogenic emissions over a 50 km wide band inland along the coast. We showed that around 30 % of the emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and 35 to 60 % of the exported carbonaceous aerosols originates from the marine and coastal areas. The formation of 23, 27 and 27 %, respectively of, ammonium, nitrate and sulfate aerosols is due to the emissions within the marine and coastal area.

2018

Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Global ozone metrics for climate change, human health, and crop/ecosystem research

Lefohn, Allen S.; Malley, Christopher S.; Smith, Luther; Wells, Benjamin; Hazucha, Milan; Simon, Heather; Naik, Vaishali; Mills, Gina; Schultz, Martin G.; Paoletti, Elena; De Marco, Alessandra; Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Neufeld, Howard S.; Musselman, Robert C.; Tarasick, David; Brauer, Michael; Feng, Zhaozhong; Tang, Haoye; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Sicard, Pierre; Solberg, Sverre; Gerosa, Giacomo

Assessment of spatial and temporal variation in the impacts of ozone on human health, vegetation, and climate requires appropriate metrics. A key component of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is the consistent calculation of these metrics at thousands of monitoring sites globally. Investigating temporal trends in these metrics required that the same statistical methods be applied across these ozone monitoring sites. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test (for significant trends) and the Theil-Sen estimator (for estimating the magnitude of trend) were selected to provide robust methods across all sites. This paper provides the scientific underpinnings necessary to better understand the implications of and rationale for selecting a specific TOAR metric for assessing spatial and temporal variation in ozone for a particular impact. The rationale and underlying research evidence that influence the derivation of specific metrics are given. The form of 25 metrics (4 for model-measurement comparison, 5 for characterization of ozone in the free troposphere, 11 for human health impacts, and 5 for vegetation impacts) are described. Finally, this study categorizes health and vegetation exposure metrics based on the extent to which they are determined only by the highest hourly ozone levels, or by a wider range of values. The magnitude of the metrics is influenced by both the distribution of hourly average ozone concentrations at a site location, and the extent to which a particular metric is determined by relatively low, moderate, and high hourly ozone levels. Hence, for the same ozone time series, changes in the distribution of ozone concentrations can result in different changes in the magnitude and direction of trends for different metrics. Thus, dissimilar conclusions about the effect of changes in the drivers of ozone variability (e.g., precursor emissions) on health and vegetation exposure can result from the selection of different metrics.

2018

A vegetation control on seasonal variations in global atmospheric mercury concentrations

Jiskra, Martin; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Obrist, Daniel; Bieser, Johannes; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Wangberg, Ingvar; Kyllönen, Katriina; Worthy, Doug; Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Mkololo, Thumeka; Ramonet, Michel; Magand, Olivier; Dommergue, Aurélien

2018

Consumption of Free Chlorine in an Aqueduct Scheme with Low Protection: Case Study of the New Aqueduct Simbrivio-Castelli (NASC), Italy

Torretta, Vincenzo; Tolkou, Athanasia K.; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A.; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A.; Trulli, Ettore; Magaril, Elena; Rada, Elena Cristina

The safety of high quality drinking water supply relies on the quantities to be delivered, on the complexity of the water supply systems, and on the widespread phenomena of the contamination of water bodies. These parameters indicate the need for the development of an application that will allow the quick acquisition of data on strategic management. This is requires both the analysis of factors related to the hydraulic operation of the plants and the characteristics of water quality. The present paper aims to evaluate the use of models that predict data for water quality in a distribution system. The assessment is made in order to consider the use of the model as a support tool for the management system of a supply network and to optimize the quality of the provided service. The improvement of the control system related to the operations of disinfection, in particular, in the case of long pipelines, is absolutely mandatory in order to ensure the safety of public health and respect for the environment at high levels.

MDPI

2018

Signals from the south; humpback whales carry messages of Antarctic sea‐ice ecosystem variability

Nash, Susan M. Bengtson; Castrillon, Juliana; Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Shuker, Jon D.; Cropp, Roger A.; Dawson, Amanda; Bignert, Anders; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Waugh, Courtney; Polkinghorne, Bradley J.; Luche, Greta Dalle; McLagan, David

John Wiley & Sons

2018

Coffee and oxidative stress: a human intervention study

Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Hatzold, Thomas; El Yamani, Naouale; Stavro, Philip Mark; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Dusinska, Maria; Reus, Astrid; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Collins, Andrew Richard

2018

Altitude-temporal behaviour of atmospheric ozone, temperature and wind velocity observed at Svalbard

Petkov, Boyan H.; Vitale, Vito; Svendby, Tove Marit; Hansen, Georg Heinrich; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Laská, Kamil; Elster, Josef; Pavlova, Kseniya; Viola, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Lupi, Angelo; Solomatnikova, Anna

Elsevier

2018

Atlantic multidecadal oscillation modulates the impacts of Arctic sea ice decline

Li, Fei; Orsolini, Yvan; Wang, Huijun; Gao, Yongqi; He, Shengping

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2018

Multisatellite multisensor observations of a sub-Plinian volcanic eruption: The 2015 Calbuco explosive event in Chile

Marzano, Frank; Corradini, Stefano; Mereu, Luigi; Kylling, Arve; Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Merucci, Luca; Stelitano, Dario

2018

Emerging pollutants in the EU: 10 years of NORMAN in support of environmental policies and regulations

Dulio, Valeria; van Bavel, Bert; Broström-Lundén, Eva; Harmsen, Joop; Hollender, Juliane; Schlabach, Martin; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Thomas, Kevin; Koschorreck, Jan

In 2005, the European Commission funded the NORMAN project to promote a permanent network of reference laboratories and research centers, including academia, industry, standardization bodies, and NGOs. Since then, NORMAN has (i) facilitated a more rapid and wide-scope exchange of data on the occurrence and effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), (ii) improved data quality and comparability via validation and harmonization of common sampling and measurement methods (chemical and biological), (iii) provided more transparent information and monitoring data on CECs, and (iv) established an independent and competent forum for the technical/scientific debate on issues related to emerging substances. NORMAN plays a significant role as an independent organization at the interface between science and policy, with the advantage of speaking to the European Commission and other public institutions with the “bigger voice” of more than 70 members from 20 countries. This article provides a summary of the first 10 years of the NORMAN network. It takes stock of the work done so far and outlines NORMAN’s vision for a Europe-wide collaboration on CECs and sustainable links from research to policy-making. It contains an overview of the state of play in prioritizing and monitoring emerging substances with reference to several innovative technologies and monitoring approaches. It provides the point of view of the NORMAN network on a burning issue—the regulation of CECs—and presents the positions of various stakeholders in the field (DG ENV, EEA, ECHA, and national agencies) who participated in the NORMAN workshop in October 2016. The main messages and conclusions from the round table discussions are briefly presented.

Springer

2018

The superstatistical nature and interoccurrence time of atmospheric mercury concentration fluctuations

Carbone, Francesco; Bruno, Antonio Giovanni; Naccarato, Attilio; De Simone, Francesco; Gencarelli, Christian Natale; Sprovieri, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Landis, Matthew S.; Skov, Henrik; Pfaffhuber, Katrine A.; Read, Katie A.; Martin, Lywill G.; Angot, Hélène; Dommergue, Aurélien; Magand, O.; Pirrone, N.

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2018

Modification of local urban aerosol properties by long-range transport of biomass burning aerosol

Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Samson, Mateusz; Zawadzka, Olga; Harenda, Kamila M.; Janicka, Lucja; Poczta, Patryk; Szczepanik, Dominika; Heese, Birgit; Wang, Dongxiang; Borek, Karolina; Tetoni, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Siomos, Nikolaos; Nemuc, Anca; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Szkop, Artur; Althausen, Dietrich; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Zehner, Claus

During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network) urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio) were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model), aerosol load (CAMS data) and type (NAAPS model) and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks) and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors). Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

MDPI

2018

Strengths and weaknesses of the FAIRMODE benchmarking methodology for the evaluation of air quality models

Monteiro, Alexandra; Durka, Pawel; Flandorfer, Claudia; Georgieva, Emilia; Guerreiro, Cristina; Kushta, Jonilda; Malherbe, L.; Maiheu, B.; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Sousa Santos, Gabriela; Stocker, Jenny R.; Trimpeneers, Elke; Tognet, Frédéric; Stortini, Michele; Wesseling, Joost; Janssen, Stijn; Thunis, Philippe

Springer

2018

Assessing, quantifying and valuing the ecosystem services of coastal lagoons

Newton, Alice; Brito, Ana C.; Icely, John D.; Derolez, Valérie; Clara, Inês; Angus, Stewart; Schernewski, Gerard; Inácio, Miguel; Lillebø, Ana I.; Sousa, Ana Isabel; Béjaoui, Béchir; Solidoro, Cosimo; Tosic, Marko; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Yamamuro, Masumi; Reizopoulou, Sofia; Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Donata, Canu; Roselli, Leonilde; Maanan, Mohamed; Cristina, Sónia; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Lima, Ricardo; Kjerfve, Björn; Rubio-Cisneros, Nadia; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pastres, Roberto; Pranovi, Fabio; Snoussi, Maria; Turpie, Jane; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Dyack, Brenda; Brookes, Justin; Povilanskas, Ramunas; Khokhlov, Valeriy

The natural conservation of coastal lagoons is important not only for their ecological importance, but also because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide for human welfare and wellbeing. Coastal lagoons are shallow semi-enclosed systems that support important habitats such as wetlands, mangroves, salt-marshes and seagrass meadows, as well as a rich biodiversity. Coastal lagoons are also complex social-ecological systems and the ecosystem services that lagoons deliver provide livelihoods, benefits wellbeing and welfare to humans. This study assessed, quantified and valued the ecosystem services of 32 coastal lagoons. The main findings of the study were: (i) the definitions of ecosystem services are still not generally accepted; (ii) the quantification of ecosystem services is made in many different ways, using different units; (iii) the evaluation in monetary terms of some ecosystem service is problematic, often relying on non-monetary evaluation methods; (iv) when ecosystem services are valued in monetary terms, this may represent very different human benefits; and, (v) different aspects of climate change, including increasing temperature (SST), sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in rainfall patterns threaten the valuable ecosystem services of coastal lagoons.

2018

Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions

Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio; Schwietzke, Stefan; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Helmig, Detlev; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Read, Katie A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Wallasch, Markus

2018

CITI-SENSE Citizens' Observatories Architecture

Liu, Hai-Ying; Berre, Arne- Jørgen; Kobernus, Michael John; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Rombouts, Richard; Tamlin, Andrei; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Santiago, Leonardo; Bartonova, Alena

This paper introduces the architecture of the CITI-SENSE Citizens’ Observatories based on the ISO 19119 reference model. It describes the various parts of the architecture including boundary services with sensors and apps and data management services with the CITI-SENSE data model. It also describes the Web Feature Service (WFS) storage support and the reusable visualisation widgets used for both apps and web portals in various Citizens’ Observatories.

European Commission Joint Research Centre

2018

Publikasjon
År
Kategori