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Low-cost sensors and Machine Learning aid in identifying environmental factors affecting particulate matter emitted by household heating

Hassani, Amirhossein; Bykuć, Sebastian; Schneider, Philipp; Zawadzki, Paweł; Chaja, Patryk; Castell, Nuria

Poland continues to rely heavily on coal and fossil fuels for household heating, despite efforts to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) levels. The availability of reliable air quality data is essential for policymakers, environmentalists, and citizens to advocate for cleaner energy sources. However, Polish air quality monitoring is challenging due to the limited coverage of reference stations and outdated equipment. Here, we report the results of a study on the spatio-temporal variability of Particulate Matter in Legionowo, Poland, using residents’ network of low-cost sensors. Along with identifying the hotspots of household-emitted PM, (1) we propose a data quality assurance scheme for PM sensors, (2) suggest an approach for estimating the Relative Humidity-induced uncertainty in the sensors without co-location with reference instruments, and (3) develop an interpretable Machine Learning (ML) model, a Generalized Additive Model (RMSE = 6.16 μg m−3, and R2 = 0.88), for unveiling the underlying relations between PM2.5 levels and other environmental parameters. The results in Legionowo suggest that as air temperature and wind speed increase by 1 °C and 1 km h−1, PM2.5 would respectively decrease by 0.26 μg m−3 and 0.14 μg m−3 while PM2.5 increases by 0.03 μg m−3 as RH increases by 1%.

Elsevier

2023

Ingestion of car tire crumb rubber and uptake of associated chemicals by lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus)

Hägg, Fanny; Herzke, Dorte; Nikiforov, Vladimir A.; Booth, Andy M.; Sperre, Kristine Hopland; Sørensen, Lisbet; Egeness, Mari Jystad; Halsband, Claudia

Car tire rubber constitutes one of the largest fractions of microplastics emissions to the environment. The two main emission sources are tire wear particles (TWPs) formed through abrasion during driving and runoff of crumb rubber (CR) granulate produced from end-of-life tires that is used as infill on artificial sports fields. Both tire wear particles and crumb rubber contain a complex mixture of metal and organic chemical additives, and exposure to both the particulate forms and their leachates can cause adverse effects in aquatic species. An understanding of the exposure pathways and mechanisms of toxicity are, however, scarce. While the most abundant metals and organic chemicals in car tire rubber have multiple other applications, para-phenylenediamines (PDs) are primarily used as rubber antioxidants and were recently shown to cause negative effects in aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the responses of the marine lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) to crumb rubber exposure in a controlled feeding experiment. Juvenile fish were offered crumb rubber particles with their feed for 1 week, followed by 2 weeks of depuration. Crumb rubber particle ingestion occurred in >75% of exposed individuals, with a maximum of 84 particles observed in one specimen. Gastrointestinal tract retention times varied, with some organisms having no crumb rubber particles and others still containing up to 33 crumb rubber particles at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were analyzed for metals and organic chemicals, with ICP-MS analysis revealing there was no uptake of metals by the exposed fish. Interestingly, high resolution GC-MS analysis indicated that uptake of PDs into lumpfish blood was proportionate to the number of ingested CR particles. Three of the PDs found in blood were the same as those identified in the additive mixture Vulkanox3100. N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (6PPD) was the most concentrated PD in both the crumb rubber and lumpfish blood. The transformation product 6PPD-quinone was detected in the rubber material, but not in the blood. This study demonstrates that PDs are specific and bioavailable chemicals in car tire rubber that have the potential to serve as biomarkers of recent exposure to tire chemicals, where simple blood samples could be used to assess recent tire chemical exposure in vertebrates, including humans.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2023

Understanding the role of cities and citizen science in advancing sustainable development goals across Europe: insights from European research framework projects

Liu, Hai Ying; Ahmed, Sohel; Passani, Antonella; Bartonova, Alena

This paper examines the potential impact of citizen science on achieving SDGs in cities. The analysis focuses on projects funded through the European Research Framework Programmes that utilize citizen science practices to involve cities and citizens in addressing sustainability issues. We analyzed a total of 44 projects active between 2016 and 2027, encompassing both ongoing and completed projects. Instead of relying solely on existing literature, we utilized a project database called CORDIS to gather project information. This approach allowed us to develop a comprehensive framework by utilizing uniformly classified data from the database, which is not typically available in literature. Using a four-stage framework analysis method, we assessed the projects' thematic areas, goals, types of solution promoted or tested to address sustainability challenges, methodologies employed, and the impacts achieved or expected. Through this analysis, we identified successful collaborations between citizen science and cities, showcasing examples of effective practice where citizens and cities co-created and tested solutions that contribute to SDGs. This highlights the active role that citizens, as participants or citizen scientists, play in the transition toward SDGs. This study focuses on more than 100 European cities that have been involved in EU-funded research projects implementing and planning to conduct citizen science activities, which directly and indirectly link to various SDGs. Our findings reveal that citizen science practices in cities predominantly address SDG3 (Good health and wellbeing), 11 (Sustainable cities and communities), and 13 (Climate action). Cities that engage citizens in co-creating solutions can enhance their capacity to improve quality of life and reduce climate and environmental impacts. Citizen engagement at the city and community levels can bolster efforts toward achieving SDGs and monitoring progress on a city-wide scale. However, to fully integrate citizen science and its contribution to cities in achieving SDGs, further research is needed to align the SDGs formulated at the national level with those at the city level. This entails exploring how citizen science can align with SDGs indicators and the quantification of SDG targets. Such efforts will facilitate the mainstreaming of citizen science and its potential to drive progress toward SDGs in cities.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2023

Semidiurnal nonmigrating tides in low-latitude lower thermospheric NO: A climatology based on 20 years of Odin/SMR measurements

Grieco, Francesco; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.; Pérot, Kristell

The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin satellite provides almost 20 years of nitric oxide (NO) measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at equatorial crossing local solar times (LSTs) of 6 AM and 6 PM. In this study, we use Odin/SMR observations to estimate how lower thermospheric NO mixing ratios at low latitudes are affected by solar nonmigrating tides. Most of the previous studies based on satellite data have focused on the signatures of diurnal tides in the MLT and above, while we concentrate here on nonmigrating semidiurnal tides. To study the contribution of these tides to NO mixing ratio variations, we average pairs of NO measurements along ascending and descending orbital tracks at 107 km altitude over latitudes between −40°and +40°. We consider monthly climatologies of these pair-averages and analyse residuals with respect to their zonal mean. In this way, it is possible to study the effect of nonmigrating even-numbered tidal components, albeit there is a non-tidal component arising largely from quasi-stationary planetary waves. Spectral wave amplitudes are extracted using a Fourier transform as function of (apparent) zonal wavenumber with a focus around −30°, −20°and 30°latitudes. From our analysis, it appears that the semidiurnal (apparent) zonal wavenumber 4 arising from the SW6 and SE2 tides is dominant close to the equator (e.g., at −20°), except during some boreal summer months (June, July, August). On the other hand, wave-1 plays a more prominent role at subtropical latitudes, especially in the southern hemisphere, where it surpasses wave-4 during 7 months (March and May-to-October) at −30°. There is little observational evidence to date documenting the presence of the semidiurnal nonmigrating tides in NO in the low-latitude MLT. Our results hence provide one of the first evidences of the climatological signature of these tides in NO, in an altitude range that remains poorly observed.

Elsevier

2023

Fluorine Mass Balance, including Total Fluorine, Extractable Organic Fluorine, Oxidizable Precursors, and Target Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances, in Pooled Human Serum from the Tromsø Population in 1986, 2007, and 2015

Cioni, Lara; Plassmann, Merle; Benskin, Jonathan P.; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Rylander, Karin Charlotta Maria; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Herzke, Dorte

Of the thousands of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) known to exist, only a small fraction (≤1%) are commonly monitored in humans. This discrepancy has led to concerns that human exposure may be underestimated. Here, we address this problem by applying a comprehensive fluorine mass balance (FMB) approach, including total fluorine (TF), extractable organic fluorine (EOF), total oxidizable precursors (TOP), and selected target PFAS, to human serum samples collected over a period of 28 years (1986, 2007, and 2015) in Tromsø, Norway. While concentrations of TF did not change between sampling years, EOF was significantly higher in 1986 compared to 2007 and 2015. The ∑12PFAS concentrations were highest in 2007 compared to 1986 and 2015, and unidentified EOF (UEOF) decreased from 1986 (46%) to 2007 (10%) and then increased in 2015 (37%). While TF and EOF were not influenced by sex, women had higher UEOF compared to men, opposite to target PFAS. This is the first FMB in human serum to include TOP, and it suggests that precursors with >4 perfluorinated carbon atoms make a minor contribution to EOF (0–4%). Additional tools are therefore needed to identify substances contributing to the UEOF in human serum.

2023

A roadmap to estimating agricultural ammonia volatilization over Europe using satellite observations and simulation data

Abeed, Rimal; Viatte, Camille; Porter, William C.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Coheur, Pierre-François; Safieddine, Sarah

Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most important gases emitted from agricultural practices. It affects air quality and the overall climate and is in turn influenced by long-term climate trends as well as by short-term fluctuations in local and regional meteorology. Previous studies have established the capability of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) series of instruments, aboard the Metop satellites, to measure ammonia from space since 2007. In this study, we explore the interactions between atmospheric ammonia, land and meteorological variability, and long-term climate trends in Europe. We investigate the emission potential (Γsoil) of ammonia from the soil, which describes the soil–atmosphere ammonia exchange. Γsoil is generally calculated in-field or in laboratory experiments; here, and for the first time, we investigate a method which assesses it remotely using satellite data, reanalysis data products, and model simulations.

We focus on ammonia emission potential in March 2011, which marks the start of growing season in Europe. Our results show that Γsoil ranges from 2 × 103 to 9.5 × 104 (dimensionless) in fertilized cropland, such as in the North European Plain, and is of the order of 10–102 in a non-fertilized soil (e.g., forest and grassland). These results agree with in-field measurements from the literature, suggesting that our method can be used in other seasons and regions in the world. However, some improvements are needed in the determination of mass transfer coefficient k (m s−1), which is a crucial parameter to derive Γsoil.

Using a climate model, we estimate the expected increase in ammonia columns by the end of the century based on the increase in skin temperature (Tskin), under two different climate scenarios. Ammonia columns are projected to increase by up to 50 %, particularly in eastern Europe, under the SSP2-4.5 scenario and might even double (increase of 100 %) under the SSP5-8.5 scenario. The increase in skin temperature is responsible for a formation of new hotspots of ammonia in Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Moldova, parts of Romania, and Switzerland.

2023

Increased contribution of biomass burning to haze events in Shanghai since China’s clean air actions

Fang, Wenzheng; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Eckhardt, Sabine; Xing, Ju; Zhang, Hailong; Xiao, Hang; Zhao, Meixun; Kim, Sang-Woo

High levels of East Asian black carbon (BC) aerosols affect ecological and environmental sustainability and contribute to climate warming. Nevertheless, the BC sources in China, after implementing clean air actions from 2013‒2017, are currently elusive due to a lack of observational constraints. Here we combine dual-isotope-constrained observations and chemical-transport modelling to quantify BC’s sources and geographical origins in Shanghai. Modelled BC concentrations capture the overall source trend from continental China and the outflow to the Pacific. Fossil sources dominate (~70%) BC in relatively clean summer. However, a striking increase in biomass burning (15‒30% higher in a fraction of biomass burning compared to summer and 2013/2014 winter), primarily attributable to residential emissions, largely contributes to wintertime BC (~45%) pollution. It highlights the increasing importance of residential biomass burning in the recent winter haze associated with >65% emissions from China’s central-east corridor. Our results suggest clearing the haze problem in China’s megacities and mitigating climate impact requires substantial reductions in regional residential emissions, besides reducing urban traffic and industry emissions.

Springer Nature

2023

Modelling PCB-153 in northern ecosystems across time, space, and species using the nested exposure model

Krogseth, Ingjerd Sunde; Breivik, Knut; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nilsen, Bente Merete; Eckhardt, Sabine; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Wania, Frank

There is concern over possible effects on ecosystems and humans from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and chemicals with similar properties. The main objective of this study was to develop, evaluate, and apply the Nested Exposure Model (NEM) designed to simulate the link between global emissions and resulting ecosystem exposure while accounting for variation in time and space. NEM, using environmental and biological data, global emissions, and physicochemical properties as input, was used to estimate PCB-153 concentrations in seawater and biota of the Norwegian marine environment from 1930 to 2020. These concentrations were compared to measured concentrations in (i) seawater, (ii) an Arctic marine food web comprising zooplankton, fish and marine mammals, and (iii) Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from large baseline studies and monitoring programs. NEM reproduced PCB-153 concentrations in seawater, the Arctic food web, and Norwegian fish within a factor of 0.1–31, 0.14–3.1, and 0.09–21, respectively. The model also successfully reproduced measured trophic magnification factors for PCB-153 at Svalbard as well as geographical variations in PCB-153 burden in Atlantic cod between the Skagerrak, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea, but estimated a steeper decline in PCB-153 concentration in herring and cod during the last decades than observed. Using the evaluated model with various emission scenarios showed the important contribution of European and global primary emissions for the PCB-153 load in fish from Norwegian marine offshore areas.

Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

2023

Regionally sourced bioaerosols drive high-temperature ice nucleating particles in the Arctic

Freitas, Gabriel Pereira; Adachi, Kouji; Conen, Franz; Heslin-Rees, Dominic; Krejci, Radovan; Tobo, Yutaka; Yttri, Karl Espen; Zieger, Paul

Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) play an important role in the climate system, facilitating the formation of ice within clouds, consequently PBAP may be important in understanding the rapidly changing Arctic. Within this work, we use single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy to identify and quantify PBAP at an Arctic mountain site, with transmission electronic microscopy analysis supporting the presence of PBAP. We find that PBAP concentrations range between 10−3–10−1 L−1 and peak in summer. Evidences suggest that the terrestrial Arctic biosphere is an important regional source of PBAP, given the high correlation to air temperature, surface albedo, surface vegetation and PBAP tracers. PBAP clearly correlate with high-temperature ice nucleating particles (INP) (>-15 °C), of which a high a fraction (>90%) are proteinaceous in summer, implying biological origin. These findings will contribute to an improved understanding of sources and characteristics of Arctic PBAP and their links to INP.

Springer Nature

2023

Linking Nanomaterial-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Existing Adverse Outcome Pathways for Chemicals

Murugadoss, Sivakumar; Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Schaffert, Alexandra; Paparella, Martin; Pem, Barbara; Sosnowska, Anita; Stępnik, Maciej; Martens, Marvin; Willighagen, Egon L.; Puzyn, Tomasz; Cimpan, Mihaela-Roxana; Lemaire, Frauke; Mertens, Birgit; Dusinska, Maria; Fessard, Valérie; Hoet, Peter H.

The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework plays a crucial role in the paradigm shift of toxicity testing towards the development and use of new approach methodologies. AOPs developed for chemicals are in theory applicable to nanomaterials (NMs). However, only subtle efforts have been made to integrate information on NM-induced toxicity into existing AOPs. In a previous study, we identified AOPs in the AOP-Wiki associated with the molecular initiating events (MIEs) and key events (KEs) reported for NMs in scientific literature. In a next step, we analyzed these AOPs and found that mitochondrial toxicity plays a significant role in several of them at the molecular and cellular levels. In this study, we aimed to generate hypothesis-based AOPs related to NM-induced mitochondrial toxicity. This was achieved by integrating science-based information collected on NM-induced mitochondrial toxicity into all existing AOPs in the AOP-Wiki, which already includes mitochondrial toxicity as a MIE/KE. The results showed that several AOPs in the AOP-Wiki related to the lung, liver, cardiovascular and nervous system, with extensively defined KEs and key event relationships (KERs), could be utilized to develop AOPs that are relevant for NMs. Our results also indicate that the majority of the studies included in our literature review were of poor quality, particularly in reporting NM physico-chemical characteristics, and NM-relevant mitochondrial MIEs were scarcely reported. This study highlights the potential role of NM-induced mitochondrial toxicity in human-relevant adverse outcomes and identifies useful AOPs in the AOP-Wiki for the development AOPs that are relevant for NMs.

2023

Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensors for Monitoring Residential Wood Burning

Hassani, Amirhossein; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Castell, Nuria

Conventional monitoring systems for air quality, such as reference stations, provide reliable pollution data in urban settings but only at relatively low spatial density. This study explores the potential of low-cost sensor systems (LCSs) deployed at homes of residents to enhance the monitoring of urban air pollution caused by residential wood burning. We established a network of 28 Airly (Airly-GSM-1, SP. Z o.o., Poland) LCSs in Kristiansand, Norway, over two winters (2021–2022). To assess performance, a gravimetric Kleinfiltergerät measured the fine particle mass concentration (PM2.5) in the garden of one participant’s house for 4 weeks. Results showed a sensor-to-reference correlation equal to 0.86 for raw PM2.5 measurements at daily resolution (bias/RMSE: 9.45/11.65 μg m–3). High-resolution air quality maps at a 100 m resolution were produced by combining the output of an air quality model (uEMEP) using data assimilation techniques with the network data that were corrected and calibrated by using a proposed five-step network data processing scheme. Leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrated that data assimilation reduced the model’s RMSE, MAE, and bias by 44–56, 38–48, and 41–52%, respectively.

2023

State of the Climate in 2022: The Arctic

Moon, Twila A.; Thoman, Richard L.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Ahmasuk, Brandon; Backensto, Stacia A.; Ballinger, Thomas J.; Benestad, Rasmus; Berner, Logan T.; Bernhard, Germar H.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Bigalke, Siiri; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Brettschneide, Brian; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Cohen, Judah L.; Dechame, Bertrand; Derksen, Chris; Divine, Dmitry V; Drost Jensen, Caroline; Elias Chereque, Aleksandra; Epstein, Howard E.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fettweis, Xavier; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Frost, Gerald V.; Gerland, Sebastian; Goetz, Scott J.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Hanna, Edward; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger; Hendricks, Stefan; Holmes, Robert M.; Ialongo, Iolanda; Isaksen, Ketil; Johnsen, Bjørn; Jones, Timothy; Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kaleschke, Lars; Kim, Seong-Joong; Labe, Zachary M.; Lader, Rick; Lakkala, Kaisa; Lara, Mark J.; Lindsey, Jackie; Loomis, Bryant D.; Luojus, Kari; Macander, Matthew J.; Mamen, Jostein; Mankoff, Ken D.; Manney, Gloria L.; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McClelland, James W.; Meier, Walter N.; Moore, G. W. K.; Mote, Thomas L.; Mudryk, Lawrence; Müller, Rolf; Nyland, Kelsey E.; Overland, James E.; Parrish, Julia K.; Perovich, Donald K.; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Petty, Alek; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Poinar, Kristin; Rantanen, Mika; Ricker, Robert; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Serreze, Mark C.; Sheffield, Gay; Shiklomanov, Alexander I.; Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.; Smith, Sharon L.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Streletskiy, Dmitry A.; Suslova, Anya; Svendby, Tove Marit; Tank, Suzanne E.; Tedesco, Marco; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Tømmervik, Hans; Tretiakov, Mikhail; Walker, Donald A.; Walsh, John E.; Wang, Muyin; Webster, Melinda; Wehrlé, Adrian; Yang, Daqing; Zolkos, Scott

American Meteorological Society

2023

A regional modelling study of halogen chemistry within a volcanic plume of Mt Etna's Christmas 2018 eruption

Narivelo, Herizo; Hamer, Paul David; Marécal, Virginie; Surl, Luke; Roberts, Tjarda; Pelletier, Sophie; Josse, Béatrice; Guth, Jonathan; Bacles, Mickaël; Warnach, Simon; Wagner, Thomas; Corradini, Stefano; Salerno, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Lorenzo

Volcanoes are known to be important emitters of atmospheric gases and aerosols, which for certain volcanoes can include halogen gases and in particular HBr. HBr emitted in this way can undergo rapid atmospheric oxidation chemistry (known as the bromine explosion) within the volcanic emission plume, leading to the production of bromine oxide (BrO) and ozone depletion. In this work, we present the results of a modelling study of a volcanic eruption from Mt Etna that occurred around Christmas 2018 and lasted 6 d. The aims of this study are to demonstrate and evaluate the ability of the regional 3D chemistry transport model Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique de Grande Echelle (MOCAGE) to simulate the volcanic halogen chemistry in this case study, to analyse the variability of the chemical processes during the plume transport, and to quantify its impact on the composition of the troposphere at a regional scale over the Mediterranean basin.

The comparison of the tropospheric SO2 and BrO columns from 25 to 30 December 2018 from the MOCAGE simulation with the columns derived from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) satellite measurements shows a very good agreement for the transport of the plume and a good consistency for the concentrations if considering the uncertainties in the flux estimates and the TROPOMI columns. The analysis of the bromine species' partitioning and of the associated chemical reaction rates provides a detailed picture of the simulated bromine chemistry throughout the diurnal cycle and at different stages of the volcanic plume's evolution. The partitioning of the bromine species is modulated by the time evolution of the emissions during the 6 d of the eruption; by the meteorological conditions; and by the distance of the plume from the vent, which is equivalent to the time since the emission. As the plume travels further from the vent, the halogen source gas HBr becomes depleted, BrO production in the plume becomes less efficient, and ozone depletion (proceeding via the Br+O3 reaction followed by the BrO self-reaction) decreases. The depletion of HBr relative to the other prevalent hydracid HCl leads to a shift in the relative concentrations of the Br− and Cl− ions, which in turn leads to reduced production of Br2 relative to BrCl.

The MOCAGE simulations show a regional impact of the volcanic eruption on the oxidants OH and O3 with a reduced burden of both gases that is caused by the chemistry in the volcanic plume. This reduction in atmospheric oxidation capacity results in a reduced CH4 burden. Finally, sensitivity tests on the composition of the emissions carried out in this work show that the production of BrO is higher when the volcanic emissions of sulfate aerosols are increased but occurs very slowly when no sulfate and Br radicals are assumed to be in the emissions. Both sensitivity tests highlight a significant impact on the oxidants in the troposphere at the regional scale of these assumptions.

All the results of this modelling study, in particular the rapid formation of BrO, which leads to a significant loss of tropospheric ozone, are consistent with previous studies carried out on the modelling of volcanic halogens.

2023

Added value of the emissions fractions approach when assessing a chemical's potential for adverse effects as a result of long-range transport

Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.; Wania, Frank

It is of considerable interest to identify chemicals which may represent a hazard and risk to environmental and human health in remote areas. The OECD POV and LRTP Screening Tool (“The Tool”) for assessing chemicals for persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) has been extensively used for combined P and LRTP assessments in various regulatory contexts, including the Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The approach in The Tool plots either the Characteristic Travel Distance (CTD, in km), a transport-oriented metric, or the Transfer Efficiency (TE, in %), which calculates the transfer from the atmosphere to surface compartments in a remote region, against overall persistence (POV). For a chemical to elicit adverse effects in remote areas, it not only needs to be transported and transferred to remote environmental surface media, it also needs to accumulate in these media. The current version of The Tool does not have a metric to quantify this process. We screened a list of >12 000 high production volume chemicals (HPVs) for the potential to be dispersed, transferred, and accumulate in surface media in remote regions using the three corresponding LRTP metrics of the emission fractions approach (EFA; ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3), as implemented in a modified version of The Tool. Comparing the outcome of an assessment based on CTD/TE and POV with the EFA, we find that the latter classifies a larger number of HPVs as having the potential for accumulation in remote regions than is classified as POP-like by the existing approach. In particular, the EFA identifies chemicals capable of accumulating in remote regions without fulfilling the criterion for POV. The remote accumulation fraction of the EFA is the LRTP assessment metric most suited for the risk assessment stage in Annex E of the SC. Using simpler metrics (such as half-life criteria, POV, and LRTP–POV combinations) in a hazard-based assessment according to Annex D is problematic as it may prematurely screen out many of the chemicals with potential for adverse effects as a result of long-range transport.

Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

2023

Relative impacts of sea ice loss and atmospheric internal variability on winter Arctic to East Asian surface air temperature based on large-ensemble simulations with NorESM2

He, Shengping; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Hui-Jun; Fan, Ke; Graff, Lise Seland; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.

Science Press

2024

Organizing the Indicator Zoo: Can a New Taxonomy Make It Easier for Citizen Science Data to Contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Indicators?

Grossberndt, Sonja; Graff, Geir; Bartonova, Alena; Volchkova, Iuliia; Evensen, Thomas

In order to measure progress towards the aims outlined by the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda, data are needed for the different indicators that are linked to each UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). Where statistical or scientific data are not sufficient or available, alternative data sources, such as data from citizen science (CS) activities, could be used.

Statistics Norway, together with the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities, have developed a taxonomy for classifying indicators that are intended to measure the SDGs. The purpose of this taxonomy is to sort, evaluate, and compare different SDG indicators and to assess their usefulness by identifying their central properties and characteristics. This is done by organizing central characteristics under the three dimensions of Goal, Perspective, and Quality. The taxonomy is designed in a way that can help users to find the right indicators across sectors to measure progress towards the SDGs depending on their own context and strategic priorities. The Norwegian taxonomy also offers new opportunities for the re-use of data collected through CS activities. This paper presents the taxonomy and demonstrates how it can be applied for an indicator based on a CS data set, and we also suggest further use of CS data.

Ubiquity Press

2023

Low-Processing Data Enrichment and Calibration for PM2.5 Low-Cost Sensors

Stojanović, Danka B.; Kleut, Duška N.; Davidović, Miloš D.; De Vito, Saverio; Jovasević-Stojanović, Milena V.; Bartonova, Alena; Lepioufle, Jean-Marie

Particulate matter (PM) in air has been proven to be hazardous to human health. Here we focused on analysis of PM data we obtained from the same campaign which was presented in our previous study. Multivariate linear and random forest models were used for the calibration and analysis. In our linear regression model the inputs were PM, temperature and humidity measured with low-cost sensors, and the target was the reference PM measurements obtained from SEPA in the same timeframe.

2023

Soil uptake of VOCs exceeds production when VOCs are readily available

Jiao, Yi; Kramshøj, Magnus; Davie-Martin, Cleo Lisa; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rinnan, Riikka

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reactive gaseous compounds with significant impacts on air quality and the Earth's radiative balance. While natural ecosystems are known to be major sources of VOCs, primarily due to vegetation, soils, an important component of these ecosystems, have received relatively less attention as potential sources and sinks of VOCs. In this study, soil samples were collected from two temperate ecosystems: a beech forest and a heather heath, and then sieved, homogenized, and incubated under various controlled conditions such as different temperatures, oxic vs. anoxic conditions, and different ambient VOC levels. A dynamic flow-through system coupled to a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure production and/or uptake rates of selected VOCs, aiming to explore the processes and their controlling mechanisms. Our results showed that these soils were natural sources of a variety of VOCs, and the strength and profile of these emissions were influenced by soil properties (e.g. moisture, soil organic matter), oxic/anoxic conditions, and temperature. The soils also acted as sinks for most VOCs when VOC substrates at parts per billions levels (ranging between 0.18 and 68.65 ppb) were supplied to the headspace of the enclosed soils, and the size of the sink corresponded to the amount of VOCs available in the ambient air. Temperature-controlled incubations and glass bead simulations indicated that the uptake of VOCs by soils was likely driven by microbial metabolism, with a minor contribution from physical adsorption to soil particles. In conclusion, our study suggests that soil uptake of VOCs can mitigate the impact of other significant VOC sources in the near-surface environment and potentially regulate the net exchange of these trace gases in ecosystems.

Elsevier

2023

Safety-by-design and engineered nanomaterials: the need to move from theory to practice

Trump, Benjamin D.; Antunes, Dalila; Palma-Oliveira, José; Nelson, Andrew; Hudecova, Alexandra Misci; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Dusinska, Maria; Gispert, Ignasi; Resch, Susanne; Alfaro-Serrano, Beatriz; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Tse, Edmund C. M.; Trump, Josh; Kohl, Yvonne; Linkov, Igor

As the governance of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) evolves, innovations in the prevention, mitigation, management, and transfer of risk shape discussion of how nanotechnology may mature and reach various marketplaces. Safety-by-Design (SbD) is one leading concept that, while equally philosophy as well as risk-based practice, can uniquely help address lingering uncertainties and concerns stemming from regulatory evaluation of ENM risk across worker, consumer, and environmental safety. This paper provides a discussion on the SbD concept across different disciplines aiming to identify different approaches and needs to meet regulatory requirements—ultimately, we argue that SbD is evolving both to meet the needs and discourse of various disciplines, and to apply within differing marketplaces and national regulatory structures. Understanding how SbD has evolved within ENM can yield a more practical application and development of SbD, and help guide or unify national and international ENM governance around a core set of safety-driven principles.

Springer

2023

Aerosol Optical Properties and Type Retrieval via Machine Learning and an All-Sky Imager

Logothetis, Stavros-Andreas; Giannaklis, Christos-Panagiotis; Salamalikis, Vasileios; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Raptis, Panagiotis-Ioannis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazantzidis, Andreas

This study investigates the applicability of using the sky information from an all-sky imager (ASI) to retrieve aerosol optical properties and type. Sky information from the ASI, in terms of Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels and sun saturation area, are imported into a supervised machine learning algorithm for estimating five different aerosol optical properties related to aerosol burden (aerosol optical depth, AOD at 440, 500 and 675 nm) and size (Ångström Exponent at 440–675 nm, and Fine Mode Fraction at 500 nm). The retrieved aerosol optical properties are compared against reference measurements from the AERONET station, showing adequate agreement (R: 0.89–0.95). The AOD errors increased for higher AOD values, whereas for AE and FMF, the biases increased for coarse particles. Regarding aerosol type classification, the retrieved properties can capture 77.5% of the total aerosol type cases, with excellent results for dust identification (>95% of the cases). The results of this work promote ASI as a valuable tool for aerosol optical properties and type retrieval.

MDPI

2023

Impact of 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns on particulate air pollution across Europe

Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Pisoni, Enrico; Mangold, Alexander; Hueglin, Christoph; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Savvides, Chrysantos; Ondráček, Jakub; Mbengue, Saliou; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Poulain, Laurent; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Massling, Andreas; Nordstroem, Claus; Alastuey, Andres; Reche, Cristina; Perez, Noemi; Castillo, Sonia; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, Jose A.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Niemi, Jarkko; Riffault, Véronique; De Brito, Joel F.; Colette, Augustin; Favez, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Gros, Valérie; Gini, Maria; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; van der Gon, Hugo Denier; Yttri, Karl Espen; Aas, Wenche

To fight against the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020, lockdown measures were implemented in most European countries. These lockdowns had well-documented effects on human mobility. We assessed the impact of the lockdown implementation and relaxation on air pollution by comparing daily particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations, as well as particle number size distributions (PNSDs) and particle light absorption coefficient in situ measurement data, with values that would have been expected if no COVID-19 epidemic had occurred at 28 sites across Europe for the period 17 February–31 May 2020. Expected PM, NO2 and O3 concentrations were calculated from the 2020 Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) ensemble forecasts, combined with 2019 CAMS ensemble forecasts and measurement data. On average, lockdown implementations did not lead to a decrease in PM2.5 mass concentrations at urban sites, while relaxations resulted in a +26 ± 21 % rebound. The impacts of lockdown implementation and relaxation on NO2 concentrations were more consistent (−29 ± 17 and +31 ± 30 %, respectively). The implementation of the lockdown measures also induced statistically significant increases in O3 concentrations at half of all sites (+13 % on average). An enhanced oxidising capacity of the atmosphere could have boosted the production of secondary aerosol at those places. By comparison with 2017–2019 measurement data, a significant change in the relative contributions of wood and fossil fuel burning to the concentration of black carbon during the lockdown was detected at 7 out of 14 sites. The contribution of particles smaller than 70 nm to the total number of particles significantly also changed at most of the urban sites, with a mean decrease of −7 ± 5 % coinciding with the lockdown implementation. Our study shows that the response of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations to lockdown measures was not systematic at various sites across Europe for multiple reasons, the relationship between road traffic intensity and particulate air pollution being more complex than expected.

2023

Leveraging opportunity of low carbon transition by super-emitter cities in China

Zheng, Heran; Zhang, Zengkai; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Zhou, Ya; Többen, Johannes Reinhard; Feng, Kuishuang; Moran, Daniel; Jiang, Meng; Shan, Yuli; Wang, Daoping; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Dandan; Meng, Jing; Ou, Jiamin; Guan, Dabo

Chinese cities are core in the national carbon mitigation and largely affect global decarbonisation initiatives, yet disparities between cities challenge country-wide progress. Low-carbon transition should preferably lead to a convergence of both equity and mitigation targets among cities. Inter-city supply chains that link the production and consumption of cities are a factor in shaping inequality and mitigation but less considered aggregately. Here, we modelled supply chains of 309 Chinese cities for 2012 to quantify carbon footprint inequality, as well as explored a leverage opportunity to achieve an inclusive low-carbon transition. We revealed significant carbon inequalities: the 10 richest cities in China have per capita carbon footprints comparable to the US level, while half of the Chinese cities sit below the global average. Inter-city supply chains in China, which are associated with 80% of carbon emissions, imply substantial carbon leakage risks and also contribute to socioeconomic disparities. However, the significant carbon inequality implies a leveraging opportunity that substantial mitigation can be achieved by 32 super-emitting cities. If the super-emitting cities adopt their differentiated mitigation pathway based on affluence, industrial structure, and role of supply chains, up to 1.4 Gt carbon quota can be created, raising 30% of the projected carbon quota to carbon peak. The additional carbon quota allows the average living standard of the other 60% of Chinese people to reach an upper-middle-income level, highlighting collaborative mechanism at the city level has a great potential to lead to a convergence of both equity and mitigation targets.

2023

Exploring microplastic contamination in Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis): Insights into plastic pollution in the southwestern tropical Atlantic

Gonçalves Pereira, Letícia; Ferreira, Guilherme V.B.; Justino, Anne K.S.; Tavares de Oliveira, Kelen Melo; Torres de Queiroz, Monique; Schmidt, Natascha; Fauvelle, Vincent; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Lucena-Fredou, Flavia

Marine mammals are considered sentinel species and may act as indicators of ocean health. Plastic residues are widely distributed in the oceans and are recognised as hazardous contaminants, and once ingested can cause several adverse effects on wildlife. This study aimed to identify and characterise plastic ingestion in the Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Southwestern Tropical Atlantic by evaluating the stomach contents of stranded individuals through KOH digestion and identification of subsample of particles by LDIR Chemical Imaging System. Most of the individuals were contaminated, and the most common polymers identified were PU, PET and EVA. Microplastics were more prevalent than larger plastic particles (meso- and macroplastics). Smaller particles were detected during the rainy seasons. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the stomach content mass and the number of microplastics, suggesting contamination through trophic transfer.

Elsevier

2023

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