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Chlorinated paraffins and dechloranes in free-range chicken eggs and soil around waste disposal sites in Tanzania

Haarr, Ane; Nipen, Maja; Mwakalapa, Eliezer Brown; Borgen, Anders Røsrud; Mmochi, Aviti J.; Borgå, Katrine


Tidsskrift: Chemosphere, vol. 329, 138646, 1–11, 2023

Arkiv: http://hdl.handle.net/10852/101996
Doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138646

Electronic waste is a source of both legacy and emerging flame retardants to the environment, especially in regions where sufficient waste handling systems are lacking. In the present study, we quantified the occurrence of short- and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) and dechloranes in household chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs and soil collected near waste disposal sites on Zanzibar and the Tanzanian mainland. Sampling locations included an e-waste facility and the active dumpsite of Dar es Salaam, a historical dumpsite in Dar es Salaam, and an informal dumpsite on Zanzibar. We compared concentrations and contaminant profiles between soil and eggs, as free-range chickens ingest a considerable amount of soil during foraging, with potential for maternal transfer to the eggs. We found no correlation between soil and egg concentrations or patterns of dechloranes or CPs. CPs with shorter chain lengths and higher chlorination degree were associated with soil, while longer chain lengths and lower chlorination degree were associated with eggs. MCCPs dominated the CP profile in eggs, with median concentrations ranging from 500 to 900 ng/g lipid weight (lw) among locations. SCCP concentrations in eggs ranged from below the detection limit (LOD) to 370 ng/g lw. Dechlorane Plus was the dominating dechlorane compound in all egg samples, with median concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.8 ng/g lw. SCCPs dominated in the soil samples (400–21300 ng/g soil organic matter, SOM), except at the official dumpsite where MCCPs were highest (65000 ng/g SOM). Concentrations of dechloranes in soil ranged from below LOD to 240 ng/g SOM, and the dominating compounds were Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane 603. Risk assessment of CP levels gave margins of exposure (MOE) close to or below 1000 for SCCPs at one location.